From: email@example.com (Paul Howard ) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Ribbon smoothing The following is a quote from Clearview engineering that may explain the "smoothing" concerns some have. "About Ribbons (Reading this paragraph is optional--may cause minor neurosis) Or more specifically, YOUR dipolar ribbon transducer. The Carver ribbons all by themselves do not have a suitably flat frequency response for high fidelity audio reproduction. The passive equalization built into your speakers can and does counteract this problem. There are several reasons for the ribbons' inherent inability to reproduce all frequencies at the same level. The ribbons emit radiation from both front and rear, and the rear being out of phase, some of the front radiation is cancelled. This effect is most prevalent at low frequencies where the long wavelengths can find their way around the panel. Thus a boost in the drive level to the ribbon near its lower cutoff frequency, (which is also near the panel's cutoff frequency} is desireable. There are other equally important nasty response variations caused by the physical dimensions of the ribbon transducer which must be dealt with. By now a prudent person must seriously wonder whether all the necessary tweaking is worth the effort. A quick listen to the wonderful transparent openness and ability of these loudspeakers to fool the brain into believing there is a live event in front of it will quickly dispel this thought. Try finding another speaker that sounds nearly the same whether you are standing or sitting. The reason for this characteristic, as well as the accurate imaging you have experienced, is the tall thin wave launch, tightly contained in the vertical dimension, covering a wider frequency range than almost any other type of acoustic transducer. IF you can find these characteristics in another speaker, try finding it at three times the price or less. The existence of the aforementioned frequency response anomalies is why efficient biamped, direct connection of the drivers to the amplifier is not feasable unless sophisticated equalization circuitry is placed in the signal chain ahead of the amplifiers. Clearview Engineering is the only company capable of providing this function. The use of the CXR- series crossover you have purchased allows higher transient peak sound pressure levels, lower intermodulation distortion, and the use of smaller power amplifiers than needed in normal passive bi-wired (now you can call it bi-wierd) mode or singly amplified mode. Another characteristic of this system is that the power amplifiers will now "see" a very constant impedance over their operating range. The ribbon impedance varies very slightly around their 3.6 ohm (48") or 4.6 ohm (60") nominal resistance." Anyone care to cook up an electronic alternative?